Archive for the ‘Stories’ Category

database_transferring_data_150_wht_10400It has been a busy week.

And a common theme has cropped up which I have attempted to capture in the diagram below.

It relates to how the NHS measures itself and how it “drives” improvement.

The measures are called “failure metrics” – mortality, infections, pressure sores, waiting time breaches, falls, complaints, budget overspends.  The list is long.

The data for a specific trust are compared with an arbitrary minimum acceptable standard to decide where the organisation is on the Red-Amber-Green scale.

If we are in the red zone on the RAG chart … we get a kick.  If not we don’t.

The fear of being bullied and beaten raises the emotional temperature and the internal pressure … which drives movement to get away from the pain.  A nematode worm will behave this way. They are not stupid either.

As as we approach the target line our RAG indicator turns “amber” … this is the “not statistically significant zone” … and now the stick is being waggled, ready in case the light goes red again.

So we muster our reserves of emotional energy and we PUSH until our RAG chart light goes green … but then we have to hold it there … which is exhausting.  One pain is replaced by another.

The next step is for the population of NHS nematodes to be compared with each other … they must be “bench-marked”, and some are doing better than others … as we might expect. We have done our “sadistics” training courses.

The bottom 5% or 10% line is used to set the “arbitrary minimum standard target” … and the top 10% are feted at national award ceremonies … and feast on the envy of the other 90 or 95% of “losers”.

The Cream of the Crop now have a big tick in their mission statement objectives box “To be in the Top 10% of Trusts in the UK“.  Hip hip huzzah.

And what has this system design actually achieved? The Cream of the Crap.

Oops!


It is said that every system is perfectly designed to deliver what it delivers.

And a system that has been designed to only use failure and fear to push improvement can only ever achieve chronic mediocrity – either chaotic mediocrity or complacent mediocrity.

So, if we want to tap into the vast zone of unfulfilled potential, and if we want to escape the perpetual pain of the Cream of the Crap Trap … we need a better system design.

And maybe we might need a splash of humility and some system engineers to help us do that.

This week I met some at the Royal Academy of Engineering in London, and it felt like finding a candle of hope amidst the darkness of despair.

I said it had been a busy week!

This 100 second video of the late Russell Ackoff is solid gold!

In it he describes the DIKUW hierarchy – data, information, knowledge, understanding and wisdom – and how it is critical to put effectiveness before efficiency.

A wise objective is a purpose … the intended outcome … and a well designed system will be both effective and efficient.  That is the engineers definition of productivity.  Doing the right thing first, and doing it right second.

So how do we transform data into wisdom? What are needs to be added or taken away? What is the process?

Data is what we get from our senses.

To convert data into information we add context.

To convert information into knowledge we use memory.

To convert knowledge into understanding we need to learn-by-doing.

And the test of understanding is to be able to teach someone else what we know and to be able to support them developing an understanding through practice.

To convert understanding into wisdom requires years of experience of seeing, doing and teaching.

There are no short cuts.

So the sooner we start learning-by-doing the quicker we will develop the wisdom of purpose, and the understanding of process.


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One of the challenges involved in learning the science of improvement, is to be able to examine our own beliefs.

We need to do that to identify the invalid assumptions that lead us to make poor decisions, and to act in ways that push us off the path to our intended outcome.

Over two thousand years ago, a Greek philosopher developed a way of exposing invalid assumptions.  He was called Socrates.

The Socratic method involves a series of questions that are posed to help a person or group to determine their underlying beliefs and the extent of their knowledge.  It is a way to develop better hypotheses by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions.

Socrates designed his method to force one to examine one’s own beliefs and the validity of such beliefs.


That skill is as valuable today as it was then, and is especially valuable when we explore complex subjects,  such as improving the performance of our health and social care system.

Our current approach is called reactive improvement – and we are reacting to failure.

Reactive improvement zealots seem obsessed with getting away from failure, disappointment, frustration, fear, waste, variation, errors, cost etc. in the belief that what remains after the dross has been removed is the good stuff. The golden nuggets.

And there is nothing wrong with that.

It has a couple of downsides though:

  1. Removing dross leaves holes, that all too easily fill up with different dross!
  2. Reactive improvement needs a big enough problem to drive it.  A crisis!

The implication is that reactive improvement grinds to a halt as the pressure is relieved and as it becomes mired in a different form of bureaucratic dross … the Quality Control Inspectorate!

No wonder we feel as if we are trapped in a perpetual state of chronic and chaotic mediocrity.


Creative improvement is, as the name suggests, focused on creating something that we want in the future.  Something like a health and social care system that is safe, calm, fit-4-purpose, and affordable.

Creative improvement does not need a problem to get started. A compelling vision and a choice to make-it-so is enough.

Creative improvement does not fizzle out as soon as we improve… because our future vision is always there to pull us forward.  And the more we practice creative improvement, the better we get, the more progress we make, and the stronger the pull becomes.


The main thing that blocks us from using creative improvement are our invalid, unconscious beliefs and assumptions about what is preventing us achieving our vision now.

So we need a way to examine our beliefs and assumptions in a disciplined and robust way, and that is the legacy that Socrates left us.


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This is a snapshot of an experiment in progress.  The question being asked is “Can consultant surgeons be trained to be system flow designers in one day?”

On the left are Kate Silvester and Phil Debenham … their doctor/trainers.

 

On the right are some brave volunteer consultant surgeons.

It is a tense moment. The focused concentration is palpable. It is a tough design assignment … a chronically chaotic one-stop outpatient clinic. They know it well.


They have the raw, unprocessed, data and they are deep into diagnosis mode.  On the other side of the room is another team of consultant surgeon volunteers who are struggling with the same challenge. Competition is in the air. Reputations are on the line. The game is on.

They are racing to generate this … a process template chart … that illustrates the conversion of raw event data into something visible and meaningful. A Gantt chart.

Their tools are basic – coloured pens and squared paper – just as Henry L. Gantt used in 1916 – a hundred years ago.

Hidden in this Gantt chart is the diagnosis, the open door to the path to improving this clinic design.  It is as plain as the nose on your face … if you know what to look for. They don’t. Well, … not yet.


Skip forwards to later in the experiment. Both teams have solved the ‘impossible’ problem. They have diagnosed the system design flaw that was causing the queues, chaos and waiting … and they have designed and verified a solution. With no more than squared paper and coloured pens.  Henry G would be delighted.

And they are justifiably proud of their achievement because, when they tested their design in the real world, it showed that the queues and chaos had “evaporated”.  And it cost … nothing.


At the start of the experiment they were unaware of what was possible. At the end of the experiment they knew how to do it. In one day.

The question: ‘”Can consultant surgeons be trained to be system flow designers in one day?”

The answer: “Yes”


 

On 5th July 2018, the NHS will be 70 years old, and like many of those it was created to serve, it has become elderly and frail.

We live much longer, on average, than we used to and the growing population of frail elderly are presenting an unprecedented health and social care challenge that the NHS was never designed to manage.

The creases and cracks are showing, and each year feels more pressured than the last.


This week a story that illustrates this challenge was shared with me along with permission to broadcast …

“My mother-in-law is 91, in general she is amazingly self-sufficient, able to arrange most of her life with reasonable care at home via a council tendered care provider.

She has had Parkinson’s for years, needing regular medication to enable her to walk and eat (it affects her jaw and swallowing capability). So the care provision is time critical, to get up, have lunch, have tea and get to bed.

She’s also going deaf, profoundly in one ear, pretty bad in the other. She wears a single ‘in-ear’ aid, which has a micro-switch on/off toggle, far too small for her to see or operate. Most of the carers can’t put it in, and fail to switch it off.

Her care package is well drafted, but rarely adhered to. It should be 45 minutes in the morning, 30, 15, 30 through the day. Each time administering the medications from the dossette box. Despite the register in/out process from the carers, many visits are far less time than designed (and paid for by the council), with some lasting 8 minutes instead of 30!

Most carers don’t ensure she takes her meds, which sometimes leads to dropped pills on the floor, with no hope of picking them up!

While the care is supposedly ‘time critical’ the provider don’t manage it via allocated time slots, they simply provide lists, that imply the order of work, but don’t make it clear. My mother-in-law (Mum) cannot be certain when the visit will occur, which makes going out very difficult.

The carers won’t cook food, but will micro-wave it, thus if a cooked meal is to happen, my Mum will start it, with the view of the carers serving it. If they arrive early, the food is under-cooked (“Just put vinegar on it, it will taste better”) and if they arrive late, either she’ll try to get it out herself, or it will be dried out / cremated.

Her medication pattern should be every 4 to 5 hours in the day, with a 11:40 lunch visit, and a 17:45 tea visit, followed by a 19:30 bed prep visit, she finishes up with too long between meds, followed by far too close together. Her GP has stated that this is making her health and Parkinson’s worse.

Mum also rarely drinks enough through the day, in the hot whether she tends to dehydrate, which we try to persuade her must be avoided. Part of the problem is Parkinson’s related, part the hassle of getting to the toilet more often. Parkinson’s affects swallowing, so she tends to sip, rather than gulp. By sipping often, she deludes herself that she is drinking enough.

She also is stubbornly not adjusting methods to align to issues. She drinks tea and water from her lovely bone china cups. Because her grip is not good and her hand shakes, we can’t fill those cups very high, so her ‘cup of tea’ is only a fraction of what it could be.

As she can walk around most days, there’s no way of telling whether she drinks enough, and she frequently has several different carers in a day.

When Mum gets dehydrated, it affects her memory and her reasoning, similar to the onset of dementia. It also seems to increase her probability of falling, perhaps due to forgetting to be defensive.

When she falls, she cannot get up, thus usually presses her alarm dongle, resulting in me going round to get her up, check for concussion, and check for other injuries, prior to settling her down again. These can be ten weeks apart, through to a few in a week.

When she starts to hallucinate, we do our very best to increase drinking, seeking to re-hydrate.

On Sunday, something exceptional happened, Mum fell out of bed and didn’t press her alarm. The carer found her and immediately called the paramedics and her GP, who later called us in. For the first time ever she was not sufficiently mentally alert to press her alarm switch.

After initial assessment, she was taken to A&E, luckily being early on Sunday morning it was initially quite quiet.

Hospital

The Hospital is on the boundary between two counties, within a large town, a mixture of new build elements, between aging structures. There has been considerable investment within A&E, X-ray etc. due partly to that growth industry and partly due to the closures of cottage hospitals and reducing GP services out of hours.

It took some persuasion to have Mum put on a drip, as she hadn’t had breakfast or any fluids, and dehydration was a probable primary cause of her visit. They took bloods, an X-ray of her chest (to check for fall related damage) and a CT scan of her head, to see if there were issues.

I called the carers to tell them to suspend visits, but the phone simply rang without be answered (not for the first time.)

After about six hours, during which time she was awake, but not very lucid, she was transferred to the day ward, where after assessment she was given some meds, a sandwich and another drip.

Later that evening we were informed she was to be kept on a drip for 24 hours.

The next day (Bank Holiday Monday) she was transferred to another ward. When we arrived she was not on a drip, so their decisions had been reversed.

I spoke at length with her assigned staff nurse, and was told the following: Mum could come out soon if she had a 24/7 care package, and that as well as the known issues mum now has COPD. When I asked her what COPD was, she clearly didn’t know, but flustered a ‘it is a form of heart failure that affects breathing’. (I looked it up on my phone a few minutes later.)

So, to get mum out, I had to arrange a 24/7 care package, and nowhere was open until the next day.

Trying to escalate care isn’t going to be easy, even in the short term. My emails to ‘usually very good’ social care people achieved nothing to start with on Tuesday, and their phone was on the ‘out of hours’ setting for evenings and weekends, despite being during the day of a normal working week.

Eventually I was told that there would be nothing to achieve until the hospital processed the correct exit papers to Social Care.

When we went in to the hospital (on Tuesday) a more senior nurse was on duty. She explained that mum was now medically fit to leave hospital if care can be re-established. I told her that I was trying to set up 24/7 care as advised. She looked through the notes and said 24/7 care was not needed, the normal 4 x a day was enough. (She was clearly angry).

I then explained that the newly diagnosed COPD may be part of the problem, she said that she’s worked with COPD patients for 16 years, and mum definitely doesn’t have COPD. While she was amending the notes, I noticed that mum’s allergy to aspirin wasn’t there, despite us advising that on entry. The nurse also explained that as the hospital is in one county, but almost half their patients are from another, they are always stymied on ‘joined up working’

While we were talking with mum, her meds came round and she was only given paracetamol for her pain, but NOT her meds for Parkinson’s. I asked that nurse why that was the case, and she said that was not on her meds sheet. So I went back to the more senior nurse, she checked the meds as ordered and Parkinson’s was required 4 x a day, but it was NOT transferred onto the administration sheet. The doctor next to us said she would do it straight away, and I was told, “Thank God you are here to get this right!”

Mum was given her food, it consisted of some soup, which she couldn’t spoon due to lack of meds and a dry tough lump of gammon and some mashed sweet potato, which she couldn’t chew.

When I asked why meds were given at five, after the delivery of food, they said ‘That’s our system!’, when I suggested that administering Parkinson’s meds an hour before food would increase the ability to eat the food they said “that’s a really good idea, we should do that!”

On Wednesday I spoke with Social Care to try to re-start care to enable mum to get out. At that time the social worker could neither get through to the hospital nor the carers. We spoke again after I had arrived in hospital, but before I could do anything.

On arrival at the hospital I was amazed to see the white-board declaring that mum would be discharged for noon on Monday (in five days-time!). I spoke with the assigned staff nurse who said, “That’s the earliest that her carers can re-start, and anyway its nearly the weekend”.

I said that “mum was medically OK for discharge on Tuesday, after only two days in the hospital, and you are complacent to block the bed for another six days, have you spoken with the discharge team?”

She replied, “No they’ll have gone home by now, and I’ve not seen them all day” I told her that they work shifts, and that they will be here, and made it quite clear if she didn’t contact SHEDs that I’d go walkabout to find them. A few minutes later she told me a SHED member would be with me in 20 minutes.

While the hospital had resolved her medical issues, she was stuck in a ward, with no help to walk, the only TV via a complex pay-for system she had no hope of understanding, with no day room, so no entertainment, no exercise, just boredom encouraged to lay in bed, wear a pad because she won’t be taken to the loo in time.

When the SHED worker arrived I explained the staff nurse attitude, she said she would try to improve those thinking processes. She took lots of details, then said that so long as mum can walk with assistance, she could be released after noon, to have NHS carer support, 4 times a day, from the afternoon. She walked around the ward for the first time since being admitted, and while shaky was fine.

Hopefully all will be better now?”


This story is not exceptional … I have heard it many times from many people in many different parts of the UK.  It is the norm rather than the exception.

It is the story of a fragmented and fractured system of health and social care.

It is the story of frustration for everyone – patients, family, carers, NHS staff, commissioners, and tax-payers.  A fractured care system is unsafe, chaotic, frustrating and expensive.

There are no winners here.  It is not a trade off, compromise or best possible.

It is just poor system design.


What we want has a name … it is called a Frail Safe design … and this is not a new idea.  It is achievable. It has been achieved.

http://www.frailsafe.org.uk

So why is this still happening?

The reason is simple – the NHS does not know any other way.  It does not know how to design itself to be safe, calm, efficient, high quality and affordable.

It does not know how to do this because it has never learned that this is possible.

But it is possible to do, and it is possible to learn, and that learning does not take very long or cost very much.

And the return vastly outnumbers the investment.


The title of this blog is Righteous Indignation

… if your frail elderly parents, relatives or friends were forced to endure a system that is far from frail safe; and you learned that this situation was avoidable and that a safer design would be less expensive; and all you hear is “can’t do” and “too busy” and “not enough money” and “not my job” …  wouldn’t you feel a sense of righteous indignation?

I do.


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figure_falling_with_arrow_17621The late Russell Ackoff used to tell a great story. It goes like this:

“A team set themselves the stretch goal of building the World’s Best Car.  So the put their heads together and came up with a plan.

First they talked to drivers and drew up a list of all the things that the World’s Best Car would need to have. Safety, speed, low fuel consumption, comfort, good looks, low emissions and so on.

Then they drew up a list of all the components that go into building a car. The engine, the wheels, the bodywork, the seats, and so on.

Then they set out on a quest … to search the world for the best components … and to bring the best one of each back.

Then they could build the World’s Best Car.

Or could they?

No.  All they built was a pile of incompatible parts. The WBC did not work. It was a futile exercise.


Then the penny dropped. The features in their wish-list were not associated with any of the separate parts. Their desired performance emerged from the way the parts worked together. The working relationships between the parts were as necessary as the parts themselves.

And a pile of average parts that work together will deliver a better performance than a pile of best parts that do not.

So the relationships were more important than the parts!


From this they learned that the quickest, easiest and cheapest way to degrade performance is to make working-well-together a bit more difficult.  Irrespective of the quality of the parts.


Q: So how do we reverse this degradation of performance?

A: Add more failure-avoidance targets of course!

But we just discovered that the performance is the effect of how the parts work well together?  Will another failure-metric-fueled performance target help? How will each part know what it needs to do differently – if anything?  How will each part know if the changes they have made are having the intended impact?

Fragmentation has a cost.  Fear, frustration, futility and ultimately financial failure.

So if performance is fading … the quality of the working relationships is a good place to look for opportunities for improvement.

stick_figure_help_button_150_wht_9911Imagine this scenario:

You develop some non-specific symptoms.

You see your GP who refers you urgently to a 2 week clinic.

You are seen, assessed, investigated and informed that … you have cancer!


The shock, denial, anger, blame, bargaining, depression, acceptance sequence kicks off … it is sometimes called the Kübler-Ross grief reaction … and it is a normal part of the human psyche.

But there is better news. You also learn that your condition is probably treatable, but that it will require chemotherapy, and that there are no guarantees of success.

You know that time is of the essence … the cancer is growing.

And time has a new relevance for you … it is called life time … and you know that you may not have as much left as you had hoped.  Every hour is precious.


So now imagine your reaction when you attend your local chemotherapy day unit (CDU) for your first dose of chemotherapy and have to wait four hours for the toxic but potentially life-saving drugs.

They are very expensive and they have a short shelf-life so the NHS cannot afford to waste any.   The Aseptic Unit team wait until all the safety checks are OK before they proceed to prepare your chemotherapy.  That all takes time, about four hours.

Once the team get to know you it will go quicker. Hopefully.

It doesn’t.

The delays are not the result of unfamiliarity … they are the result of the design of the process.

All your fellow patients seem to suffer repeated waiting too, and you learn that they have been doing so for a long time.  That seems to be the way it is.  The waiting room is well used.

Everyone seems resigned to the belief that this is the best it can be.

They are not happy about it but they feel powerless to do anything.


Then one day someone demonstrates that it is not the best it can be.

It can be better.  A lot better!

And they demonstrate that this better way can be designed.

And they demonstrate that they can learn how to design this better way.

And they demonstrate what happens when they apply their new learning …

… by doing it and by sharing their story of “what-we-did-and-how-we-did-it“.

CDU_Waiting_Room

If life time is so precious, why waste it?

And perhaps the most surprising outcome was that their safer, quicker, calmer design was also 20% more productive.

growing_workload_anim_6858There is a very easy and quick-to-cook recipe for chaos.

All we have to do is to ensure that the maximum number of jobs that we can do in a given time is set equal to the average number of jobs that we are required to do in the same period of time.

Eh?

That does not make sense.  Our intuition says that looks like the perfect recipe for a hyper-efficient, zero-waste, zero idle-time design which is what we want.


I know it does, but it isn’t.  Our intuition is tricking us.

It is the recipe for chaos – and to prove it all we will have to do a real world experiment – because to prove it using maths is really difficult. So difficult in fact that the formula was not revealed until 1962 – by a mathematician called John Kingman while a postgraduate student at Pembroke College, Cambridge.

The empirical experiment is very easy to do – all we need is a single step process – and a stream of jobs to do.

And we could do it for real, or we can simulate it using an Excel spreadsheet – which is much quicker.


So we set up our spreadsheet to simulate a new job arriving every X minutes and each job taking X minutes to complete.

Our operator can only do one job at a time so if a job arrives and the operator is busy the job joins the back of a queue of jobs and waits.

When the operator finishes a job it takes the next one from the front of the queue, the one that has been waiting longest.

And if there is no queue the operator will wait until the next job arrives.

Simple.

And when we run simulation the we see that there is indeed no queue, no jobs waiting and the operator is always busy (i.e. 100% utilised). Perfection!

BUT ….

This is not a realistic scenario.  In reality there is always some random variation.  Not all jobs require the same length of time, and jobs do not arrive at precisely the right intervals.

No matter, our confident intuition tells us. It will average out.  Swings-and-roundabouts. Give-and-take.

It doesn’t.

And if you do not believe me just build the simple Excel model outlined above, verify that it works, then add some random variation to the time it takes to do each job … and observe what happens to the average waiting time.

What you will discover is that as soon as we add even a small amount of random variation we get a queue, and waiting and idle resources as well!

But not a steady, stable, predictable queue … Oh No! … We get an unsteady, unstable and unpredictable queue … we get chaos.

Try it.


So what? How does this abstract ‘queue theory’ apply to the real world?


Well, suppose we have a single black box system called ‘a hospital’ – patients arrive and we work hard to diagnose and treat them.  And so long as we have enough resource-time to do all the jobs we are OK. No unstable queues. No unpredictable waiting.

But time-costs-money and we have an annual cost improvement target (CIP) that we are required to meet so we need to ‘trim’ resource-time capacity to push up resource utilisation.  And we will call that an ‘efficiency improvement’ which is good … yes?

It isn’t actually.  I can just as easily push up my ‘utilisation’ by working slower, or doing stuff I do not need to, or by making mistakes that I have to check for and then correct.  I can easily make myself busier and delude myself I am working harder.

And we are also a victim of our own success … the better we do our job … the longer people live and the more workload they put on the health and social care system.

So we have the perfect storm … the perfect recipe for chaos … slowly rising demand … slowly shrinking budgets … and an inefficient ‘business’ design.

And that in a nutshell is the reason the NHS is descending into chaos.


So what is the solution?

Reduce demand? Stop people getting sick? Or make them sicker so they die quicker?

Increase budgets? Where will the money come from? Beg? Borrow? Steal? Economic growth?

Improve the design?  Now there’s a thought. But how? By using the same beliefs and behaviours that have created the current chaos?

Maybe we need to challenge some invalid beliefs and behaviours … and replace those that fail the Reality Test with some more effective ones.

 

Don_Berwick_2016

This week I had the great pleasure of watching Dr Don Berwick sharing the story of his own ‘near religious experience‘ and his conversion to a belief that a Science of Improvement exists.  In 1986, Don attended one of W.Edwards Deming’s famous 4-day workshops.  It was an emotional roller coaster ride for Don! See here for a link to the whole video … it is worth watching all of it … the best bit is at the end.


Don outlines Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge (SoPK) and explores each part in turn. Here is a summary of SoPK from the Deming website.

Deming_SOPK

W.Edwards Deming was a physicist and statistician by training and his deep understanding of variation and appreciation for a system flows from that.  He was not trained as a biologist, psychologist or educationalist and those parts of the SoPK appear to have emerged later.

Here are the summaries of these parts – psychology first …

Deming_SOPK_Psychology

Neurobiologists and psychologists now know that we are the product of our experiences and our learning. What we think consciously is just the emergent tip of a much bigger cognitive iceberg. Most of what is happening is operating out of awareness. It is unconscious.  Our outward behaviour is just a visible manifestation of deeply ingrained values and beliefs that we have learned – and reinforced over and over again.  Our conscious thoughts are emergent effects.


So how do we learn?  How do we accumulate these values and beliefs?

This is the summary of Deming’s Theory of Knowledge …

Deming_SOPK_PDSA

But to a biologist, neuroanatomist, neurophysiologist, doctor, system designer and improvement coach … this does not feel correct.

At the most fundamental biological level we do not learn by starting with a theory; we start with a sensory.  The simplest element of the animal learning system – the nervous system – is called a reflex arc.

Sensor_Processor_EffectorFirst, we have some form of sensor to gather data from the outside world. Eyes, ears, smell, taste, touch, temperature, pain and so on.  Let us consider pain.

That signal is transmitted via a sensory nerve to the processor, the grey matter in this diagram, where it is filtered, modified, combined with other data, filtered again and a binary output generated. Act or Not.

If the decision is ‘Act’ then this signal is transmitted by a motor nerve to an effector, in this case a muscle, which results in an action.  The muscle twitches or contracts and that modifies the outside world – we pull away from the source of pain.  It is a harm avoidance design. Damage-limitation. Self-preservation.

Another example of this sensor-processor-effector design template is a knee-jerk reflex, so-named because if we tap the tendon just below the knee we can elicit a reflex contraction of the thigh muscle.  It is actually part of a very complicated, dynamic, musculoskeletal stability cybernetic control system that allows us to stand, walk and run … with almost no conscious effort … and no conscious awareness of how we are doing it.

But we are not born able to walk. As youngsters we do not start with a theory of how to walk from which we formulate a plan. We see others do it and we attempt to emulate them. And we fail repeatedly. Waaaaaaah! But we learn.


Human learning starts with study. We then process the sensory data using our internal mental model – our rhetoric; we then decide on an action based on our ‘current theory’; and then we act – on the external world; and then we observe the effect.  And if we sense a difference between our expectation and our experience then that triggers an ‘adjustment’ of our internal model – so next time we may do better because our rhetoric and the reality are more in sync.

The biological sequence is Study-Adjust-Plan-Do-Study-Adjust-Plan-Do and so on, until we have achieved our goal; or until we give up trying to learn.


So where does psychology come in?

Well, sometimes there is a bigger mismatch between our rhetoric and our reality. The world does not behave as we expect and predict. And if the mismatch is too great then we are left with feelings of confusion, disappointment, frustration and fear.  (PS. That is our unconscious mind telling us that there is a big rhetoric-reality mismatch).

We can see the projection of this inner conflict on the face of a child trying to learn to walk.  They screw up their faces in conscious effort, and they fall over, and they hurt themselves and they cry.  But they do not want us to do it for them … they want to learn to do it for themselves. Clumsily at first but better with practice. They get up and try again … and again … learning on each iteration.

Study-Adjust-Plan-Do over and over again.


There is another way to avoid the continual disappointment, frustration and anxiety of learning.  We can distort our sensation of external reality to better fit with our internal rhetoric.  When we do that the inner conflict goes away.

We learn how to tamper with our sensory filters until what we perceive is what we believe. Inner calm is restored (while outer chaos remains or increases). We learn the psychological defense tactics of denial and blame.  And we practice them until they are second-nature. Unconscious habitual reflexes. We build a reality-distortion-system (RDS) and it has a name – the Ladder of Inference.


And then one day, just by chance, somebody or something bypasses our RDS … and that is the experience that Don Berwick describes.

Don went to a 4-day workshop to hear the wisdom of W.Edwards Deming first hand … and he was forced by the reality he saw to adjust his inner model of the how the world works. His rhetoric.  It was a stormy transition!

The last part of his story is the most revealing.  It exposes that his unconscious mind got there first … and it was his conscious mind that needed to catch up.

Study-(Adjust)-Plan-Do … over-and-over again.


In Don’s presentation he suggests that Frederick W. Taylor is the architect of the failure of modern management. This is a commonly held belief, and everyone is equally entitled to an opinion, that is a definition of mutual respect.

But before forming an individual opinion on such a fundamental belief we should study the raw evidence. The words written by the person who wrote them not just the words written by those who filtered the reality through their own perceptual lenses.  Which we all do.

The Harvard Business Review is worth reading because many of its articles challenge deeply held assumptions, and then back up the challenge with the pragmatic experience of those who have succeeded to overcome the limiting beliefs.

So the heading on the April 2016 copy that awaited me on my return from an Easter break caught my eye: YOU CAN’T FIX CULTURE.


 

HBR_April_2016

The successful leaders of major corporate transformations are agreed … the cultural change follows the technical change … and then the emergent culture sustains the improvement.

The examples presented include the Ford Motor Company, Delta Airlines, Novartis – so these are not corporate small fry!

The evidence suggests that the belief of “we cannot improve until the culture changes” is the mantra of failure of both leadership and management.


A health care system is characterised by a culture of risk avoidance. And for good reason. It is all too easy to harm while trying to heal!  Primum non nocere is a core tenet – first do no harm.

But, change and improvement implies taking risks – and those leaders of successful transformation know that the bigger risk by far is to become paralysed by fear and to do nothing.  Continual learning from many small successes and many small failures is preferable to crisis learning after a catastrophic failure!

The UK healthcare system is in a state of chronic chaos.  The evidence is there for anyone willing to look.  And waiting for the NHS culture to change, or pushing for culture change first appears to be a guaranteed recipe for further failure.

The HBR article suggests that it is better to stay focussed; to work within our circles of control and influence; to learn from others where knowledge is known, and where it is not – to use small, controlled experiments to explore new ground.


And I know this works because I have done it and I have seen it work.  Just by focussing on what is important to every member on the team; focussing on fixing what we could fix; not expecting or waiting for outside help; gathering and sharing the feedback from patients on a continuous basis; and maintaining patient and team safety while learning and experimenting … we have created a micro-culture of high safety, high efficiency, high trust and high productivity.  And we have shared the evidence via JOIS.

The micro-culture required to maintain the safety, flow, quality and productivity improvements emerged and evolved along with the improvements.

It was part of the effect, not the cause.


So the concept of ‘fix the system design flaws and the continual improvement culture will emerge’ seems to work at macro-system and at micro-system levels.

We just need to learn how to diagnose and treat healthcare system design flaws. And that is known knowledge.

So what is the next excuse?  Too busy?

Pearl_and_OysterThe word pearl is a metaphor for something rare, beautiful, and valuable.

Pearls are formed inside the shell of certain mollusks as a defense mechanism against a potentially threatening irritant.

The mollusk creates a pearl sac to seal off the irritation.


And so it is with change and improvement.  The growth of precious pearls of improvement wisdom – the ones that develop slowly over time – are triggered by an irritant.

Someone asking an uncomfortable question perhaps, or presenting some information that implies that an uncomfortable question needs to be asked.


About seven years ago a question was asked “Would improving healthcare flow and quality result in lower costs?”

It is a good question because some believe that it would and some believe that it would not.  So an experiment to test the hypothesis was needed.

The Health Foundation stepped up to the challenge and funded a three year project to find the answer. The design of the experiment was simple. Take two oysters and introduce an irritant into them and see if pearls of wisdom appeared.

The two ‘oysters’ were Sheffield Hospital and Warwick Hospital and the irritant was Dr Kate Silvester who is a doctor and manufacturing system engineer and who has a bit-of-a-reputation for asking uncomfortable questions and backing them up with irrefutable information.


Two rare and precious pearls did indeed grow.

In Sheffield, it was proved that by improving the design of their elderly care process they improved the outcome for their frail, elderly patients.  More went back to their own homes and fewer left via the mortuary.  That was the quality and safety improvement. They also showed a shorter length of stay and a reduction in the number of beds needed to store the work in progress.  That was the flow and productivity improvement.

What was interesting to observe was how difficult it was to get these profoundly important findings published.  It appeared that a further irritant had been created for the academic peer review oyster!

The case study was eventually published in Age and Aging 2014; 43: 472-77.

The pearl that grew around this seed is the Sheffield Microsystems Academy.


In Warwick, it was proved that the A&E 4 hour performance could be improved by focussing on improving the design of the processes within the hospital, downstream of A&E.  For example, a redesign of the phlebotomy and laboratory process to ensure that clinical decisions on a ward round are based on todays blood results.

This specific case study was eventually published as well, but by a different path – one specifically designed for sharing improvement case studies – JOIS 2015; 22:1-30

And the pearls of wisdom that developed as a result of irritating many oysters in the Warwick bed are clearly described by Glen Burley, CEO of Warwick Hospital NHS Trust in this recent video.


Getting the results of all these oyster bed experiments published required irritating the Health Foundation oyster … but a pearl grew there too and emerged as the full Health Foundation report which can be downloaded here.


So if you want to grow a fistful of improvement and a bagful of pearls of wisdom … then you will need to introduce a bit of irritation … and Dr Kate Silvester is a proven source of grit for your oyster!

SaveTheNHSGameThe first step in the process of improvement is raising awareness, and this has to be done carefully.

Most of us spend most of our time in a mental state called blissful ignorance.  We are happily unaware of the problems, and of their solutions.

Some of us spend some of our time in a different mental state called denial.

And we enter that from yet another mental state called painful awareness.

By raising awareness we are deliberately nudging ourselves, and others, out of our comfort zones.

But suddenly moving from blissful ignorance to painful awareness is not a comfortable transition. It feels like a shock. We feel confused. We feel vulnerable. We feel frightened. And we have a choice: freeze, flee or fight.

Freeze is shock. We feel paralysed by the mismatch between rhetoric and reality.

Flee is denial.  We run away from a new and uncomfortable reality.

Fight is anger. Directed first at others (blame) and then at ourselves (guilt).

It is this anger-passion that we must learn to channel and focus as determination to listen, learn and then lead.


The picture is of a recent awareness-raising event; it happened this week.

The audience is a group of NHS staff from across the depth and breadth of a health and social care system.

On the screen is the ‘Save the NHS Game’.  It is an interactive, dynamic flow simulation of a whole health care system; and its purpose is educational.  It is designed to illustrate the complex and counter-intuitive flow behaviour of a system of interdependent parts: primary care, an acute hospital, intermediate care, residential care, and so on.

We all became aware of a lot of unfamiliar concepts in a short space of time!

We all learned that a flow system can flip from calm to chaotic very quickly.

We all learned that a small change in one part of a system of interdependent parts can have a big effect in another part – either harmful or beneficial and often both.

We all learned that there is often a long time-lag between the change and the effect.

We all learned that we cannot reverse the effect just by reversing the change.

And we all learned that this high sensitivity to small changes is the result of the design of our system; i.e. our design.


Learning all that in one go was a bit of a shock!  Especially the part where we realised that we had, unintentionally, created near perfect conditions for chaos to emerge. Oh dear!

Denial felt like a very reasonable option; as did blame and guilt.

What emerged was a collective sense of determination.  “Let’s Do It!” captured the mood.


puzzle_lightbulb_build_PA_150_wht_4587The second step in the process of improvement is to show the door to the next phase of learning; the phase called ‘know how’.

This requires demonstrating that there is an another way out of the zone of painful awareness.  An alternative to denial.

This is where how-to-diagnose-and-correct-the-design-flaws needs to be illustrated. A step-at-a-time.

And when that happens it feels like a light bulb has been switched on.  What before was obscure and confusing suddenly becomes clear and understandable; and we say ‘Ah ha!’


So, if we deliberately raise awareness about a problem then, as leaders of change and improvement, we also have the responsibility to raise awareness about feasible solutions.


Because only then are we able to ask “Would we like to learn how to do this ourselves!”

And ‘Yes, please’ is what 68% of the people said after attending the awareness raising event.  Only 15% said ‘No, thank you’ and only 17% abstained.

Raising awareness is the first step to improvement.
Choosing the path out of the pain towards knowledge is the second.
And taking the first step on that path is the third.

british_pound_money_three_bundled_stack_400_wht_2425This week I conducted an experiment – on myself.

I set myself the challenge of measuring the cost of chaos, and it was tougher than I anticipated it would be.

It is easy enough to grasp the concept that fire-fighting to maintain patient safety amidst the chaos of healthcare would cost more in terms of tears and time …

… but it is tricky to translate that concept into hard numbers; i.e. cash.


Chaos is an emergent property of a system.  Safety, delivery, quality and cost are also emergent properties of a system. We can measure cost, our finance departments are very good at that. We can measure quality – we just ask “How did your experience match your expectation”.  We can measure delivery – we have created a whole industry of access target monitoring.  And we can measure safety by checking for things we do not want – near misses and never events.

But while we can feel the chaos we do not have an easy way to measure it. And it is hard to improve something that we cannot measure.


So the experiment was to see if I could create some chaos, then if I could calm it, and then if I could measure the cost of the two designs – the chaotic one and the calm one.  The difference, I reasoned, would be the cost of the chaos.

And to do that I needed a typical chunk of a healthcare system: like an A&E department where the relationship between safety, flow, quality and productivity is rather important (and has been a hot topic for a long time).

But I could not experiment on a real A&E department … so I experimented on a simplified but realistic model of one. A simulation.

What I discovered came as a BIG surprise, or more accurately a sequence of big surprises!

  1. First I discovered that it is rather easy to create a design that generates chaos and danger.  All I needed to do was to assume I understood how the system worked and then use some averaged historical data to configure my model.  I could do this on paper or I could use a spreadsheet to do the sums for me.
  2. Then I discovered that I could calm the chaos by reactively adding lots of extra capacity in terms of time (i.e. more staff) and space (i.e. more cubicles).  The downside of this approach was that my costs sky-rocketed; but at least I had restored safety and calm and I had eliminated the fire-fighting.  Everyone was happy … except the people expected to foot the bill. The finance director, the commissioners, the government and the tax-payer.
  3. Then I got a really big surprise!  My safe-but-expensive design was horribly inefficient.  All my expensive resources were now running at rather low utilisation.  Was that the cost of the chaos I was seeing? But when I trimmed the capacity and costs the chaos and danger reappeared.  So was I stuck between a rock and a hard place?
  4. Then I got a really, really big surprise!!  I hypothesised that the root cause might be the fact that the parts of my system were designed to work independently, and I was curious to see what happened when they worked interdependently. In synergy. And when I changed my design to work that way the chaos and danger did not reappear and the efficiency improved. A lot.
  5. And the biggest surprise of all was how difficult this was to do in my head; and how easy it was to do when I used the theory, techniques and tools of Improvement-by-Design.

So if you are curious to learn more … I have written up the full account of the experiment with rationale, methods, results, conclusions and references and I have published it here.

FreshMeatOldBonesEvolution is an amazing process.

Using the same building blocks that have been around for a lot time, it cooks up innovative permutations and combinations that reveal new and ever more useful properties.

Very often a breakthrough in understanding comes from a simplification, not from making it more complicated.

Knowledge evolves in just the same way.

Sometimes a well understood simplification in one branch of science is used to solve an ‘impossible’ problem in another.

Cross-fertilisation of learning is a healthy part of the evolution process.


Improvement implies evolution of knowledge and understanding, and then application of that insight in the process of designing innovative ways of doing things better.


And so it is in healthcare.  For many years the emphasis on healthcare improvement has been the Safety-and-Quality dimension, and for very good reasons.  We need to avoid harm and we want to achieve happiness; for everyone.

But many of the issues that plague healthcare systems are not primarily SQ issues … they are flow and productivity issues. FP. The safety and quality problems are secondary – so only focussing on them is treating the symptoms and not the cause.  We need to balance the wheel … we need flow science.


Fortunately the science of flow is well understood … outside healthcare … but apparently not so well understood inside healthcare … given the queues, delays and chaos that seem to have become the expected norm.  So there is a big opportunity for cross fertilisation here.  If we choose to make it happen.


For example, from computer science we can borrow the knowledge of how to schedule tasks to make best use of our finite resources and at the same time avoid excessive waiting.

It is a very well understood science. There is comprehensive theory, a host of techniques, and fit-for-purpose tools that we can pick of the shelf and use. Today if we choose to.

So what are the reasons we do not?

Is it because healthcare is quite introspective?

Is it because we believe that there is something ‘special’ about healthcare?

Is it because there is no evidence … no hard proof … no controlled trials?

Is it because we assume that queues are always caused by lack of resources?

Is it because we do not like change?

Is it because we do not like to admit that we do not know stuff?

Is it because we fear loss of face?


Whatever the reasons the evidence and experience shows that most (if not all) the queues, delays and chaos in healthcare systems are iatrogenic.

This means that they are self-generated. And that implies we can un-self-generate them … at little or no cost … if only we knew how.

The only cost is to our egos of having to accept that there is knowledge out there that we could use to move us in the direction of excellence.

New meat for our old bones?

Dr_Bob_ThumbnailDr Bob runs a Clinic for Sick Systems and is sharing the story of a recent case – a hospital that has presented with chronic pain in their A&E department.

It is a complicated story so Dr Bob is presenting it in bite-sized bits that only require a few minutes to read. Part 1 is here. Part 2 is here.

To summarise the case history so far:

The patient is St.Elsewhere’s® Hospital, a medium sized district general hospital situated in mid-England. StE has a type-1 A&E Department that receives about 200 A&E arrivals per day which is rather average. StE is suffering with chronic pain – specifically the emotional, operational, cultural and financial pain caused by failing their 4-hour A&E target. Their Paymasters and Inspectors have the thumbscrews on, and each quarter … when StE publish their performance report that shows they have failed their A&E target (again) … the thumbscrews are tightened a few more clicks. Arrrrrrrrrrrrgh.

Dr Bob has discovered that StE routinely collect data on when individual patients arrive in A&E and when they depart, and that they use this information for three purposes:
1) To calculate their daily and quarterly 4-hour target failure rate.
2) To create action plans that they believe will eliminate their pain-of-failure.
3) To expedite patients who are approaching the 4-hour target – because that eases the pain.

But the action plans do not appear to have worked and, despite their heroic expeditionary effort, the chronic pain is getting worse. StE is desperate and has finally accepted that it needs help. The Board are worried that they might not survive the coming winter storm and when they hear whispers of P45s being armed and aimed by the P&I then they are finally scared enough to seek professional advice. So they Choose&Book an urgent appointment at Dr Bob’s clinic … and they want a solution yesterday … but they fear the worst. They fear discovering that there is no solution!

The Board, the operational managers and the senior clinicians feel like they are between a rock and a hard place.  If Dr Bob’s diagnosis is ‘terminal’ then they cannot avert the launch of the P45’s and it is Game Over for the Board and probably for StE as well.  And if Dr Bob’s diagnosis is ‘treatable’ then they cannot avert accepting the painful exposure of their past and present ineptitude – particularly if the prescribed humble pie is swallowed and has the desired effect of curing the A&E pain.

So whatever the diagnosis they appear to have an uncomfortable choice: leave or learn?

Dr Bob has been looking at the A&E data for one typical week that StE have shared.

And Dr Bob knows what to look for … the footprint of a dangerous yet elusive disease. A characteristic sign that doctors have a name for … a pathognomic sign.

Dr Bob is looking for the Horned Gaussian … and has found it!

So now Dr Bob has to deliver the bittersweet news to the patient.


<Dr Bob> Hello again. Please sit down and make yourselves comfortable. As you know I have been doing some tests on the A&E data that you shared.  I have the results of those tests and I need to be completely candid with you. There is good news and there is not-so-good news.

[pause]

Would you like to hear this news and if so … in what order?

<StE> Oh dear. We were hoping there was only good news so perhaps we should start there.

<Dr Bob> OK.  The good news is that you appear to be suffering from a treatable disease. The data shows the unmistakable footprint of a Horned Gaussian.

<StE> Phew! Thank the Stars! That is what we had hoped and prayed for! Thank you so much. You cannot imagine how much better we feel already.  But what is the not-so-good news?

<Dr Bob> The not-so-good news is that the disease is iatrogenic which is medical jargon for self-inflicted.  And I appreciate that you did not do this knowingly so you should not feel guilt or blame for doing things that you did not know are self-defeating.

[pause]

And in order to treat this disease we have to treat the root cause and that implies you have a simple choice to make.

<StE> Actually, what you are saying does not come as a surprise. We have sensed for some time that there was something that we did not really understand but we have been so consumed by fighting-the-fire that we have prevaricated in grasping that nettle.  And we think we know what the choice is: to leave or to learn. Continuing as we are is no longer an option.

<Dr Bob> You are correct.  That is the choice.


StE confers and unanimously choose to take the more courageous path … they choose to learn.


<StE> We choose to learn. Can we start immediately? Can you teach us about the Horned Gaussian?

<Dr Bob> Of course, but before that we need to understand what a Gaussian is.

Suppose we have some very special sixty-sided dice with faces numbered 1 to 59, and suppose we toss six of them and wait until they come to rest. Then suppose we count up the total score on the topmost facet of each die … and then suppose we write that total down. And suppose we do this 1500 times and then calculate the average total score. What do you suppose the average would be … approximately?

<StE> Well … the score on each die can be between 1 and 59 and each number is equally likely to happen … so the average score for 1500 throws of one die will be about 30 … so the average score for six of these mega-dice will be about 180.

<Dr Bob> Excellent. And how will the total score vary from throw to throw?

<StE> H’mm … tricky.  We know that it will vary but our intuition does not tell us by how much.

<Dr Bob> I agree. It is not intuitively obvious at all. We sense that the further away from 180 we look the less likely we are to find that score in our set of 1500 totals but that is about as close as our intuition can take us.  So we need to do an empirical experiment and we can do that easily with a spreadsheet. I have run this experiment and this is what I found …

Sixty_Sided_Dice_GameNotice that there is rather a wide spread around our expected average of 180 and remember that this is just tossing a handful of sixty-sided dice … so this variation is random … it is inherent and expected and we have no influence over it. Notice too that on the left the distribution of the scores is plotted as a histogram … the blue line. Notice the symmetrical hump-like shape … this is the footprint of a Gaussian.

<StE> So what? This is a bit abstract and theoretical for us. How does it help us?

<Dr Bob> Please bear with me a little longer. I have also plotted the time that each of your patients were in A&E last week on the same sort of chart. What do you notice?

StE_A&E_Actual

<StE> H’mm. This is very odd. It looks like someone has taken a blunt razor to the data … they fluffed the first bit but sharpened up their act for the rest of it. And the histogram looks a bit like the one on your chart, well the lower half does, then there is a big spike. Is that the Horned thingamy?

<Dr Bob> Yes. This is the footprint of a Horned Gaussian. What this picture of your data says is that something is distorting the natural behaviour of your A&E system and that something is cutting in at 240 minutes. Four hours.

<StE> Wait a minute! That is exactly what we do. We admit patients who are getting close to the 4-hour target to stop the A&E clock and reduce the pain of 4-hour failure.  But we can only admit as many as we have space for … and sometimes we run out of space.  That happened last Monday evening. The whole of StE hospital was gridlocked and we had no option but to store the A&E patients in the corridors – some for more than 12 hours! Just as the chart shows.

<Dr Bob> And by distorting your natural system behaviour in this way you are also distorting the data.  Your 4-hour breach rate is actually a lot lower that it would otherwise be … until the system gridlocks then it goes through the roof.  This design is unstable and unsafe.

[pause]

Are Mondays always like this?

<StE> Usually, yes. Tuesday feels less painful and the agony eases up to Friday then it builds up again.  It is worse than Groundhog Day … it is more like Groundhog Week!  The chaos and firefighting is continuous though, particularly in the late afternoon and evenings.      

<Dr Bob> So now we are gaining some understanding.  The uncomfortable discovery when we look in the mirror is that: part of the cause is our own policies that create the symptoms and obscure the disease. We have looked in the mirror and “we have seen the enemy and the enemy is us“. This is an iatrogenic disease and in my experience a common root cause is something called carveoutosis.  Understanding the pathogenesis of carveoutosis is the path to understanding what is needed to treat it.  Are you up for that?

<StE> You bet we are!

<Dr Bob> OK. First we need to establish a new habit. You need to start plotting your A&E data just like this. Every day. Every week. Forever. This is your primary feedback loop. This chart will tell you when real improvement is happening. Your quarterly average 4-hour breach percentage will not. The Paymasters, Inspectors and Government will still ask for that quarterly aggregated target failure data but you will use these diagnostic and prognostic system behaviour charts for all your internal diagnosis, decisions and actions.  And next week we will explore carveoutosis … 


St.Elsewhere’s® is a registered trademark of Kate Silvester Ltd.
And to read more real cases of 4-hour pain download Kate’s:
 The Christmas Crisis


Dr_Bob_ThumbnailHello, Dr Bob here.

This week we will continue to explore the Case of Chronic Pain in the A&E Department of St.Elsewhere’s Hospital.

Last week we started by ‘taking a history’.  We asked about symptoms and we asked about the time patterns and associations of those symptoms. The subjective stuff.

And as we studied the pattern of symptoms a list of plausible diagnoses started to form … with chronic carveoutosis as a hot contender.

Carveoutosis is a group of related system diseases that have a common theme. So if we find objective evidence of carveoutosis then we will talk about it … but for now we need to keep an open mind.


The next step is to ‘examine the patient’ – which means that we use the pattern of symptoms to focus our attention on seeking objective signs that will help us to prune our differential diagnosis.

But first we need to be clear what the pain actually is. We need a more detailed description.

<Dr Bob> Can you explain to me what the ‘4-hour target’ is?

<StE> Of course. When a new patient arrives at our A&E Department we start a clock for that patient, and when the patient leaves we stop their clock.  Then we work out how long they were in the A&E Department and we count the number that were longer than 4-hours for each day.  Then we divide this number by the number of patients who arrived that day to give us a percentage: a 4-hour target failure rate. Then we average those daily rates over three months to give us our Quarterly 4-hour A&E Target Performance; one of the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that are written into our contract and which we are required to send to our Paymasters and Inspectors.  If that is more than 5% we are in breach of our contract and we get into big trouble, if it is less than 5% we get left alone. Or to be more precise the Board get into big trouble and they share the pain with us.

<Dr Bob> That is much clearer now.  Do you know how many new patients arrive in A&E each day, on average.

<StE> About two hundred, but it varies quite a lot from day-to-day.


Dr Bob does a quick calculation … about 200 patients for 3 months is about 18,000 pieces of data on how long the patients were in the A&E Department …  a treasure trove of information that could help to diagnose the root cause of the chronic 4-hour target pain.  And all this data is boiled down into a binary answer to the one question in their quarterly KPI report:

Q: Did you fail the 4-hour A&E target this quarter? [Yes] [No]       

That implies that more than 99.99% of the available information is not used.

Which is like driving on a mountain road at night with your lights on but your eyes closed! Dangerous and scary!

Dr Bob now has a further addition to his list of diagnoses: amaurosis agnosias which roughly translated means ‘turning a blind eye’.


<Dr Bob> Can I ask how you use this clock information in your minute-to-minute management of patients?

<StE> Well for the first three hours we do not use it … we just get on with managing the patients.  Some are higher priority and more complicated than others, we call them Majors and we put them in the Majors Area. Some are lower priority and easier so we call them Minors and we put them in the Minors Area. Our doctors and nurses then run around looking after the highest clinical priority patients first … for obvious reasons. However, as a patient’s clock starts to get closer to 4-hours then that takes priority and those patients start to leapfrog up the queue of who to see next.  We have found that this is an easy and effective way to improve our 4-hour performance. It can make the difference between passing or failing a quarter and reducing our referred pain! To assist us implement the Leapfrog Policy our Board have invested in some impressive digital technology … a huge computer monitor on the wall that shows exactly who is closest to the 4-hour target.  This makes it much easier for us to see which patients needs to be leapfrogged for decision and action.

<Dr Bob>  Do you, by any chance, keep any of the individual patient clock data?

<StE> Yes, we have to do that because we are required to complete a report each week for the causes of 4-hour failures and we also have to submit an Action Plan for how we will eliminate them.  So we keep the data and then spend hours going back through the thousands of A&E cards to identify what we think are the causes of the delays. There are lots of causes and many patients are affected by more than one; and there does not appear to be any clear pattern … other than ‘too busy’. So our action plan is the same each week … write yet another business case asking for more staff and for more space. 

<Dr Bob> Could you send me some of that raw clock data?  Anonymous of course. I just need the arrival date and time and the departure date and time for an average week.

<StE> Yes of course – we will send the data from last week – there were about 1500 patients.


Dr Bob now has all the information needed to explore the hunch that the A&E Department is being regularly mauled by a data mower … one that makes the A&E performance look better … on paper … and that obscures the actual problem.

Just like treating a patient’s symptoms and making their underlying disease harder to diagnose and therefore harder to cure.

To be continued … here

 

Dr_Bob_Thumbnail

The blog last week seems to have caused a bit of a stir … so this week we will continue on the same theme.

I’m Dr Bob and I am a hospital doctor: I help to improve the health of poorly hospitals.

And I do that using the Science of Improvement – which is the same as all sciences, there is a method to it.

Over the next few weeks I will outline, in broad terms, how this is done in practice.

And I will use the example of a hospital presenting with pain in their A&E department.  We will call it St.Elsewhere’s ® Hospital … a fictional name for a real patient.


It is a while since I learned science at school … so I thought a bit of a self-refresher would be in order … just to check that nothing fundamental has changed.

Science_Sequence

This is what I found on page 2 of a current GCSE chemistry textbook.

Note carefully that the process starts with observations; hypotheses come after that; then predictions and finally designing experiments to test them.

The scientific process starts with study.

Which is reassuring because when helping a poorly patient or a poorly hospital that is exactly where we start.

So, first we need to know the symptoms; only then can we start to suggest some hypotheses for what might be causing those symptoms – a differential diagnosis; and then we look for more specific and objective symptoms and signs of those hypothetical causes.


<Dr Bob> What is the presenting symptom?

<StE> “Pain in the A&E Department … or more specifically the pain is being felt by the Executive Department who attribute the source to the A&E Department.  Their pain is that of 4-hour target failure.

<Dr Bob> Are there any other associated symptoms?

<StE> “Yes, a whole constellation.  Complaints from patients and relatives; low staff morale, high staff turnover, high staff sickness, difficulty recruiting new staff, and escalating locum and agency costs. The list is endless.”

<Dr Bob> How long have these symptoms been present?

<StE> “As long as we can remember.”

<Dr Bob> Are the symptoms staying the same, getting worse or getting better?

<StE> “Getting worse. It is worse in the winter and each winter is worse than the last.”

<Dr Bob> And what have you tried to relieve the pain?

<StE> “We have tried everything and anything – business process re-engineering, balanced scorecards, Lean, Six Sigma, True North, Blue Oceans, Golden Hours, Perfect Weeks, Quality Champions, performance management, pleading, podcasts, huddles, cuddles, sticks, carrots, blogs  and even begging. You name it we’ve tried it! The current recommended treatment is to create a swarm of specialist short-stay assessment units – medical, surgical, trauma, elderly, frail elderly just to name a few.” 

<Dr Bob> And how effective have these been?

<StE> “Well some seemed to have limited and temporary success but nothing very spectacular or sustained … and the complexity and cost of our processes just seem to go up and up with each new initiative. It is no surprise that everyone is change weary and cynical.”


The pattern of symptoms is that of a chronic (longstanding) illness that has seasonal variation, which is getting worse over time and the usual remedies are not working.

And it is obvious that we do not have a clear diagnosis; or know if our unclear diagnosis is incorrect; or know if we are actually dealing with an incurable disease.

So first we need to focus on establishing the diagnosis.

And Dr Bob is already drawing up a list of likely candidates … with carveoutosis at the top.


<Dr Bob> Do you have any data on the 4-hour target pain?  Do you measure it?

<StE> “We are awash with data! I can send the quarterly breach performance data for the last ten years!”

<Dr Bob> Excellent, that will be useful as it should confirm that this is a chronic and worsening problem but it does not help establish a diagnosis.  What we need is more recent, daily data. Just the last six months should be enough. Do you have that?

<StE> “Yes, that is how we calculate the quarterly average that we are performance managed on. Here is the spreadsheet. We are ‘required’ to have fewer than 5% 4-hour breaches on average. Or else.”


This is where Dr Bob needs some diagnostic tools.  He needs to see the pain scores presented as  picture … so he can see the pattern over time … because it is a very effective way to generate plausible causal hypotheses.

Dr Bob can do this on paper, or with an Excel spreadsheet, or use a tool specifically designed for the job. He selects his trusted visualisation tool : BaseLine©.


StE_4hr_Pain_Chart

<Dr Bob> This is your A&E pain data plotted as a time-series chart.  At first glance it looks very chaotic … that is shown by the wide and flat histogram. Is that how it feels?

<StE> “That is exactly how it feels … earlier in the year it was unremitting pain and now we have a constant background ache with sharp, severe, unpredictable stabbing pains on top. I’m not sure what is worse!

<Dr Bob> We will need to dig a bit deeper to find the root cause of this chronic pain … we need to identify the diagnosis or diagnoses … and your daily pain data should offer us some clues.

StE_4hr_Pain_Chart_RG_DoWSo I have plotted your data in a different way … grouping by day of the week … and this shows there is a weekly pattern to your pain. It looks worse on Mondays and least bad on Fridays.  Is that your experience?

<StE> “Yes, the beginning of the week is definitely worse … because it is like a perfect storm … more people referred by their GPs on Mondays and the hospital is already full with the weekend backlog of delayed discharges so there are rarely beds to admit new patients into until late in the day. So they wait in A&E.  


Dr Bob’s differential diagnosis is firming up … he still suspects acute-on-chronic carveoutosis as the primary cause but he now has identified an additional complication … Forrester’s Syndrome.

And Dr Bob suspects an unmentioned problem … that the patient has been traumatised by a blunt datamower!

So that is the evidence we will look for next … here

Monitor_Summary


This week an interesting report was published by Monitor – about some possible reasons for the A&E debacle that England experienced in the winter of 2014.

Summary At A Glance

“91% of trusts did not  meet the A&E 4-hour maximum waiting time standard last winter – this was the worst performance in 10 years”.


So it seems a bit odd that the very detailed econometric analysis and the testing of “Ten Hypotheses” did not look at the pattern of change over the previous 10 years … it just compared Oct-Dec 2014 with the same period for 2013! And the conclusion: “Hospitals were fuller in 2014“.  H’mm.


The data needed to look back 10 years is readily available on the various NHS England websites … so here it is plotted as simple time-series charts.  These are called system behaviour charts or SBCs. Our trusted analysis tools will be a Mark I Eyeball connected to the 1.3 kg of wetware between our ears that runs ChimpOS 1.0 …  and we will look back 11 years to 2004.

A&E_Arrivals_2004-15First we have the A&E Arrivals chart … about 3.4 million arrivals per quarter. The annual cycle is obvious … higher in the summer and falling in the winter. And when we compare the first five years with the last six years there has been a small increase of about 5% and that seems to associate with a change of political direction in 2010.

So over 11 years the average A&E demand has gone up … a bit … but only by about 5%.


A&E_Admissions_2004-15In stark contrast the A&E arrivals that are admitted to hospital has risen relentlessly over the same 11 year period by about 50% … that is about 5% per annum … ten times the increase in arrivals … and with no obvious step in 2010. We can see the annual cycle too.  It is a like a ratchet. Click click click.


But that does not make sense. Where are these extra admissions going to? We can only conclude that over 11 years we have progressively added more places to admit A&E patients into.  More space-capacity to store admitted patients … so we can stop the 4-hour clock perhaps? More emergency assessment units perhaps? Places to wait with the clock turned off perhaps? The charts imply that our threshold for emergency admission has been falling: Admission has become increasingly the ‘easier option’ for whatever reason.  So why is this happening? Do more patients need to be admitted?


In a recent empirical study we asked elderly patients about their experience of the emergency process … and we asked them just after they had been discharged … when it was still fresh in their memories. A worrying pattern emerged. Many said that they had been admitted despite them saying they did not want to be.  In other words they did not willingly consent to admission … they were coerced.

This is anecdotal data so, by implication, it is wholly worthless … yes?  Perhaps from a statistical perspective but not from an emotional one.  It is a red petticoat being waved that should not be ignored.  Blissful ignorance comes from ignoring anecdotal stuff like this. Emotionally uncomfortable anecdotal stories. Ignore the early warning signs and suffer the potentially catastrophic consequences.


A&E_Breaches_2004-15And here is the corresponding A&E 4-hour Target Failure chart.  Up to 2010 the imposed target was 98% success (i.e. 2% acceptable failure) and, after bit of “encouragement” in 2004-5, this was actually achieved in some of the summer months (when the A&E demand was highest remember).

But with a change of political direction in 2010 the “hated” 4-hour target was diluted down to 95% … so a 5% failure rate was now ‘acceptable’ politically, operationally … and clinically.

So it is no huge surprise that this is what was achieved … for a while at least.

In the period 2010-13 the primary care trusts (PCTs) were dissolved and replaced by clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) … the doctors were handed the ignition keys to the juggernaut that was already heading towards the cliff.

The charts suggest that the seeds were already well sown by 2010 for an evolving catastrophe that peaked last year; and the changes in 2010 and 2013 may have just pressed the accelerator pedal a bit harder. And if the trend continues it will be even worse this coming winter. Worse for patients and worse for staff and worse for commissioners and  worse for politicians. Lose lose lose lose.


So to summarise the data from the NHS England’s own website:

1. A&E arrivals have gone up 5% over 11 years.
2. Admissions from A&E have gone up 50% over 11 years.
3. Since lowering the threshold for acceptable A&E performance from 98% to 95% the system has become unstable and “fallen off the cliff” … but remember, a temporal association does not prove causation.

So what has triggered the developing catastrophe?

Well, it is important to appreciate that when a patient is admitted to hospital it represents an increase in workload for every part of the system that supports the flow through the hospital … not just the beds.  Beds represent space-capacity. They are just where patients are stored.  We are talking about flow-capacity; and that means people, consumables, equipment, data and cash.

So if we increase emergency admissions by 50% then, if nothing else changes, we will need to increase the flow-capacity by 50% and the space-capacity to store the work-in-progress by 50% too. This is called Little’s Law. It is a mathematically proven Law of Flow Physics. It is not negotiable.

So have we increased our flow-capacity and our space-capacity (and our costs) by 50%? I don’t know. That data is not so easy to trawl from the websites. It will be there though … somewhere.

What we have seen is an increase in bed occupancy (the red box on Monitor’s graphic above) … but not a 50% increase … that is impossible if the occupancy is already over 85%.  A hospital is like a rigid metal box … it cannot easily expand to accommodate a growing queue … so the inevitable result in an increase in the ‘pressure’ inside.  We have created an emergency care pressure cooker. Well lots of them actually.

And that is exactly what the staff who work inside hospitals says it feels like.

And eventually the relentless pressure and daily hammering causes the system to start to weaken and fail, gradually at first then catastrophically … which is exactly what the NHS England data charts are showing.


So what is the solution?  More beds?

Nope.  More beds will create more space and that will relieve the pressure … for a while … but it will not address the root cause of why we are admitting 50% more patients than we used to; and why we seem to need to increase the pressure inside our hospitals to squeeze the patients through the process and extrude them out of the various exit nozzles.

Those are the questions we need to have understandable and actionable answers to.

Q1: Why are we admitting 5% more of the same A&E arrivals each year rather than delivering what they need in 4 hours or less and returning them home? That is what the patients are asking for.

Q2: Why do we have to push patients through the in-hospital process rather than pulling them through? The staff are willing to work but not inside a pressure cooker.


A more sensible improvement strategy is to look at the flow processes within the hospital and ensure that all the steps and stages are pulling together to the agreed goals and plan for each patient. The clinical management plan that was decided when the patient was first seen in A&E. The intended outcome for each patient and the shortest and quickest path to achieving it.


Our target is not just a departure within 4 hours of arriving in A&E … it is a competent diagnosis (study) and an actionable clinical management plan (plan) within 4 hours of arriving; and then a process that is designed to deliver (do) it … for every patient. Right, first time, on time, in full and at a cost we can afford.

Q: Do we have that?
A: Nope.

Q: Is that within our gift to deliver?
A: Yup.

Q: So what is the reason we are not already doing it?
A: Good question.  Who in the NHS is trained how to do system-wide flow design like this?

figure_turning_a_custom_page_15415

Telling a compelling story of improvement is an essential skill for a facilitator and leader of change.

A compelling story has two essential components: cultural and technical. Otherwise known as emotional and factual.

Many of the stories that we hear are one or the other; and consequently are much less effective.


Some prefer emotive language and use stories of dismay and distress to generate an angry reaction: “That is awful we must DO something about that!”

And while emotion is the necessary fuel for action,  an angry mob usually attacks the assumed cause rather than the actual cause and can become ‘mindless’ and destructive.

Those who have observed the dangers of the angry mob opt for a more reflective, evidence-based, scientific, rational, analytical, careful, risk-avoidance approach.

And while facts are the necessary informers of decision, the analytical mind often gets stuck in the ‘paralysis of analysis’ swamp as layer upon layer of increasing complexity is exposed … more questions than answers.


So in a compelling story we need a bit of both.

We need a story that fires our emotions … and … we need a story that engages our intellect.

A bit of something for everyone.

And the key to developing this compelling-story-telling skill this is to start with something small enough to be doable in a reasonable period of time.  A short story rather than a lengthy legend.

A story, tale or fable.

Aesop’s Fables and Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales are still remembered for their timeless stories.


And here is a taste of such a story … one that has been published recently for all to read and to enjoy.

A Story of Learning Improvement Science

It is an effective blend of cultural and technical, emotional and factual … and to read the full story just follow the ‘Continue’ link.

Rogers_CurveThe early phases of a transformation are where most fall by the wayside.

And the failure rate is horrifying – an estimated 80% of improvement initiatives fail to achieve their goals.

The recent history of the NHS is littered with the rusting wreckage of a series of improvement bandwagons.  Many who survived the crashes are too scarred and too scared to try again.


Transformation and improvement imply change which implies innovation … new ways of thinking, new ways of behaving, new techniques, new tools, and new ways of working.

And it has been known for over 50 years that innovation spreads in a very characteristic way. This process was described by Everett Rogers in a book called ‘Diffusion of Innovations‘ and is described visually in the diagram above.

The horizontal axis is a measure of individual receptiveness to the specific innovation … and the labels are behaviours: ‘I exhibit early adopter behaviour‘ (i.e. not ‘I am an early adopter’).

What Roger’s discovered through empirical observation was that in all cases the innovation diffuses from left-to-right; from innovation through early adoption to the ‘silent’ majority.


Complete diffusion is not guaranteed though … there are barriers between the phases.

One barrier is between innovation and early adoption.

There are many innovations that we never hear about and very often the same innovation appears in many places and often around the same time.

This innovation-adoption barrier is caused by two things:
1) most are not even aware of the problem … they are blissfully ignorant;
2) news of the innovation is not shared widely enough.

Innovators are sensitive people.  They sense there is a problem long before others do. They feel the fear and the excitement of need for innovation. They challenge their own assumptions and they actively seek solutions. They swim against the tide of ignorance, disinterest, skepticism and often toxic cynicism.  So when they do discover a way forward they often feel nervous about sharing it. They have learned (the hard way) that the usual reaction is to be dismissed and discounted.  Most people do not like to learn about unknown problems and hazards; and they like it even less to learn that there are solutions that they neither recognise nor understand.


But not everyone.

There is a group called the early adopters who, like the innovators, are aware of the problem. They just do not share the innovator’s passion to find a solution … irrespective of the risks … so they wait … their antennae tuned for news that a solution has been found.

Then they act.

And they act in one of two ways:

1) Talkers … re-transmit the news of the problem and the discovery of a generic solution … which is essential in building awareness.

2) Walkers … try the innovative approach themselves and in so doing learn a lot about their specific problem and the new ways to solving it.

And it is the early adopters that do both of these actions that are the most effective and the most valuable to everyone else.  Those that talk-the-new-walk and walk-the-new-talk.

And we can identify who they are because they will be able to tell stories of how they have applied the innovation in their world; and the results that they have achieved; and how they achieved them; and what worked well; and what did not; and what they learned; and how they evolved and applied the innovation to meet their specific needs.

They are the leaders, the coaches and the teachers of improvement and transformation.

They See One, Do Some, and Teach Many.

The early adopters are the bridge across the Innovation and Transformation Chasm.

There comes a point in every improvement journey when it is time to celebrate and share. This is the most rewarding part of the Improvement Science Practitioner (ISP) coaching role so I am going to share a real celebration that happened this week.

The picture shows Chris Jones holding his well-earned ISP-1 Certificate of Competence.  The “Maintaining the Momentum of Medicines”  redesign project is shown on the poster on the left and it is the tangible Proof of Competence. The hard evidence that the science of improvement delivers.

Chris_Jones_Poster_and_Certificate

Behind us are the A3s for one of the Welsh Health Boards;  ABMU in fact.


An A3 is a way of summarising an improvement project very succinctly – the name comes from the size of paper used.  A3 is the biggest size that will go through an A4 fax machine (i.e. folded over) and the A3 discipline is to be concise and clear at the same time.

The three core questions that the A3 answers are:
Q1: What is the issue?
Q2: What would improvement need to look like?
Q3: How would we know that a change is an improvement?

This display board is one of many in the room, each sharing a succinct story of a different improvement journey and collectively a veritable treasure trove of creativity and discovery.

The A3s were of variable quality … and that is OK and is expected … because like all skills it takes practice. Lots of practice. Perfection is not the goal because it is unachievable. Best is not the goal because only one can be best. Progress is the goal because everyone can progress … and so progress is what we share and what we celebrate.


The event was the Fifth Sharing Event in the Welsh Flow Programme that has been running for just over a year and Chris is the first to earn an ISP-1 Certificate … so we all celebrated with him and shared the story.  It is a team achievement – everyone in the room played a part in some way – as did many more who were not in the room on the day.


stick_figure_look_point_on_cliff_anim_8156Improvement is like mountain walking.

After a tough uphill section we reach a level spot where we can rest; catch our breath; take in the view; reflect on our progress and the slips, trips and breakthroughs along the way; perhaps celebrate with drink and nibble of our chocolate ration; and then get up, look up, and square up for the next uphill bit.

New territory for us.  New challenges and new opportunities to learn and to progress and to celebrate and share our improvement stories.

IS_PyramidDeveloping productive improvement capability in an organisation is like building a pyramid in the desert.

It is not easy and it takes time before there is any visible evidence of success.

The height of the pyramid is a measure of the level of improvement complexity that we can take on.

An improvement of a single step in a system would only require a small pyramid.

Improving the whole system will require a much taller one.


But if we rush and attempt to build a sky-scraper on top of the sand then we will not be surprised when it topples over before we have made very much progress.  The Egyptians knew this!

First, we need to dig down and to lay some foundations.  Stable enough and strong enough to support the whole structure.  We will never see the foundations so it is easy to forget them in our rush but they need to be there and they need to be there first.

It is the same when developing improvement science capability  … the foundations are laid first and when enough of that foundation knowledge is in place we can start to build the next layer of the pyramid: the practitioner layer.


It is the the Improvement Science Practitioners (ISPs) who start to generate tangible evidence of progress.  The first success stories help to spur us all on to continue to invest effort, time and money in widening our foundations to be able to build even higher – more layers of capability -until we can realistically take on a system wide improvement challenge.

So sharing the first hard evidence of improvement is an important milestone … it is proof of fitness for purpose … and that news should be shared with those toiling in the hot desert sun and with those watching from the safety of the shade.

So here is a real story of a real improvement pyramid achieving this magical and motivating milestone.


Dr_Bob_ThumbnailBob and Leslie were already into the dialogue of their regular ISP coaching session when Bob saw an incoming text from one of his other ISPees. It was simply marked: “Very Urgent”.

<Bob> Leslie, I have just received an urgent SMS that I think I need to investigate immediately. Could we put this conversation on ice for 10 minutes and I will call you back?

<Leslie> Of course. I have lots to do. Please do not rush back if it requires more time.

<Bob> Thank you.

Ten minutes later Leslie saw that Bob was phoning and picked up.

<Leslie> Hi Bob.  I hope you were able to sort out the urgent problem. The fact that you are back suggests you did.

<Bob> Hi Leslie.  Thank you for your understanding and patience. The issue was urgent and the root cause is not yet solved, but lessons are being learned.  And this is one you are going to come up against too so it may be an opportune time to explore it.

<Leslie> H’mm. Now you have pricked my curiosity. But you can’t discuss someone else’s problem with me surely!

<Bob> No indeed.  Strict confidentiality is essential.  We can talk about the generic issue though, without disclosing any details.  Do you remember that project you were doing last year where you achieved an initial success and then it all seemed to go wobbly?

<Leslie> Yes. At the time you said that I needed to put that one on the shelf and to press on with other projects. I think the phrase you used was “it needs to stew for a while“.

<Bob> And what happened?

<Leslie> The hard won improvement in performance slipped back and I felt like a failure and started to lose confidence. You said not to blame myself but to learn and  move on.  The lesson was I did not appreciate the difference between circles of control and circles of influence. I was trying to influence others before I had mastered self-control.

<Bob> Yes. There was another factor too but I did not feel it was the time to explore it. Now feels like a better time.

<Leslie> OK … now my curiosity is really fired up.

<Bob> Do you remember last week’s blog about the Improvement Gearbox?

<Leslie> Yes. I really liked the mechanical metaphor.  It resonated with so many things. I have used it several times this week in conversations.

<Bob> Well, there is a close relationship between the level of challenge and the gearbox.  As complexity increases we need to be able to use more of the gears, and to change up and down with ease and according to need.

<Leslie> Change down? I sort of assumed that once you got to fourth gear you stay there.

<Bob> That is true if the terrain is level and everyone is on board the bus with the same destination in mind.  In reality the terrain goes up and down and as we learn we need to stop and let some people get off and take others on board.

<Leslie> So we need to change down gears on the uphill bits, change up gears on the downhill, and go through the whole gear sequence when we deliberately slow to a halt, and then get on our way again.

<Bob> Yes. Well put. The world is changing all the time and the team on board is in dynamic flux. Some arrive, some leave and others stay on the bus but change seats as we move along.  Not all seats suit all people. What is comfortable for one may be painful for another.

<Leslie> So how come the urgent call?

<Bob> A fight had broken out on their bus, the tribes were arguing because the improvements they have made have blown away some of the fog and exposed some deeper cultural cracks. Cracks that had been there all the time but were concealed by the fog of the daily chaos and the smoke of the burning martyrs. They had taken their eye off the road and were heading for a blind bend unaware of what was around the corner.

<Leslie> So your intervention was to shout “Pay attention to the road and make a decision … steer or stop!

<Bob> Yes, that about sums it up.  A co-labor-ation call.

<Leslie> Eh? Dis you just say collaboration in a weird way?

<Bob> Yes. I chopped it up into concepts … “co” means together, “labor” means work and “ation” means action or process.  If they do not learn to co-labor-ate then they will come off the road, crash, and burn. And join the graveyard of improvement train wrecks that litter the verges of the rocky road of change.

<Leslie> Fourth gear stuff?

<Bob> Whole gearbox stuff. All gears between first and fourth because they are all necessary at different times.  Each gear builds on those which go before. There are no good or bad gears just fit-for-current-purpose or not.  Bad driving is ineptitude. Not using the vehicle’s gearbox effectively and efficiently and risking the safety and comfort of the passengers and other road users. Poor leadership is analogous to poor driving. Dangerous.

<Leslie> So an effective leader of change needs to be able to use all the gears competently and to know when to use which and when to change. And in doing so demonstrate what a safe pair of leadership hands looks like and what it can achieve … through collaborative effort.

<Bob> Perfect!  It is time for you to tear up your L plates.

GearboxOne of the most rewarding experiences for an improvement science coach is to sense when an individual or team shift up a gear and start to accelerate up their learning curve.

It is like there is a mental gearbox hidden inside them somewhere.  Before they were thrashing themselves by trying to go too fast in a low gear. Noisy, ineffective, inefficient and at high risk of blowing a gasket!

Then, they discover that there is a higher gear … and that to get to it they have to take a risk … depress the emotional clutch, ease back on the gas, slip into neutral, and trust themselves to find the new groove and … click … into the higher gear, and then ease up the power while letting out the clutch.  And then accelerate up the learning  curve.  More effective, more efficient. More productive. More fun.


Organisations appear to behave in much the same way.

Some scream along in the slow-lane … thrashing their employee engine. The majority chug complacently in the middle-lane of mediocrity. A few accelerate past in the fast-lane to excellence.

And they are all driving exactly the same model of car.

So it is not the car that is making the difference … it is the driving.


Those who have studied organisations have observed five cultural “gears”; and which gear an organisation is in most of the time can be diagnosed by listening to the sound of the engine – the conversations of the employees.

If they are muttering “work sucks” then they are in first gear.  The sense of hopelessness, futility, despair and anger consumes all their emotional fuel. Fortunately this is uncommon.

If we mainly hear “my work sucks” then they are in second gear.  The feeling is of helplessness and apathy and the behaviour is Victim-like.  They believe that they cannot solve their own problems … someone else must do it for them or tell them what to do. They grumble a lot.

If the dominant voice is “I’m great but you lot suck” then we are hearing third gear attitudes. The selfishly competitive behaviour of the individualist achiever. The “keep your cards close to your chest” style of dyadic leadership.  The advocate of “it is OK to screw others to get ahead”. They grumble a lot too – about the apathetic bunch.

And those who have studied organisations suggest that about 80% of healthcare organisations are stuck in first, second or third cultural gear.  And we can tell who they are … the lower 80% of the league tables. The ones clamouring for more … of everything.


So how come so many organisations are so stuck? Unable to find fourth gear?

One cause is the design of their feedback loops. Their learning loops.

If an organisation only uses failure as a feedback loop then it is destined to get no more than mediocrity.  Third gear at best, and usually only second.

Example.
We all feel disappointment when our experience does not live up to our expectation.  But only the most angry of us will actually do something and complain.  Especially when we have no other choice of provider!

Suppose we are commissioners of healthcare services and we are seeing a rising tide of patient and staff complaints. We want to improve the safety and quality of the services that we are paying for; so we draw up a league table using complaints as feedback fodder and we focus on the worst performing providers … threatening them with dire consequences for being in the bottom 20%.  What happens? Fear of failure motivates them to ‘pull up their socks’ and the number of complaints falls.

Job done?

Unfortunately not.

All we have done is to bully those stuck in first or second gear into thrashing their over-burdened employee engine even harder.  We have not helped anyone find their higher gear. We have hit the target, missed the point, and increased the risk of system failure!

So what about those organisations stuck in third gear?

Well they are ticking their performance boxes, meeting our targets, keeping their noses clean.  Some are just below, and some just above the collective mean of barely acceptable mediocrity.

But expectation is changing.

The 20% who have discovered fourth gear are accelerating ahead and are demonstrating what is possible. And they are raising expectation, increasing the variation of service quality … for the better.

And the other 80% are falling further and further behind; thrashing their tired and demoralised staff harder and harder to keep up.  Complaining increasingly that life is unfair and that they need more, time, money and staff engagement. Eventually their executive head gaskets go “pop” and they fall by the wayside.


Finding cultural fourth gear is possible but it is not easy. There are no short cuts.  We have to work our way up the gears and we have to learn when and how to make smooth transitions from first to second, second to third and then third to fourth.

And when we do that the loudest voice we hear is “We are OK“.

We need to learn how to do a smooth cultural hill start on the steep slope from apathy to excellence.

And we need to constantly listen to the sound of our improvement engine; to learn to understand what it is saying; and learn how and when to change to the next cultural gear.

Dr_Bob_Thumbnail[Bing] Bob logged in for the weekly Webex coaching session. Leslie was not yet on line, but joined a few minutes later.

<Leslie> Hi Bob, sorry I am a bit late, I have been grappling with a data analysis problem and did not notice the time.

<Bob> Hi Leslie. Sounds interesting. Would you like to talk about that?

<Leslie> Yes please! It has been driving me nuts!

<Bob> OK. Some context first please.

<Leslie> Right, yes. The context is an improvement-by-design assignment with a primary care team who are looking at ways to reduce the unplanned admissions for elderly patients by 10%.

<Bob> OK. Why 10%?

<Leslie> Because they said that would be an operationally very significant reduction.  Most of their unplanned admissions, and therefore costs for admissions, are in that age group.  They feel that some admissions are avoidable with better primary care support and a 10% reduction would make their investment of time and effort worthwhile.

<Bob> OK. That makes complete sense. Setting a new design specification is OK.  I assume they have some baseline flow data.

<Leslie> Yes. We have historical weekly unplanned admissions data for two years. It looks stable, though rather variable on a week-by-week basis.

<Bob> So has the design change been made?

<Leslie> Yes, over three months ago – so I expected to be able to see something by now but there are no red flags on the XmR chart of weekly admissions. No change.  They are adamant that they are making a difference, particularly in reducing re-admissions.  I do not want to disappoint them by saying that all their hard work has made no difference!

<Bob> OK Leslie. Let us approach this rationally.  What are the possible causes that the weekly admissions chart is not signalling a change?

<Leslie> If there has not been a change in admissions. This could be because they have indeed reduced readmissions but new admissions have gone up and is masking the effect.

<Bob> Yes. That is possible. Any other ideas?

<Leslie> That their intervention has made no difference to re-admissions and their data is erroneous … or worse still … fabricated!

<Bob> Yes. That is possible too. Any other ideas?

<Leslie> Um. No. I cannot think of any.

<Bob> What about the idea that the XmR chart is not showing a change that is actually there?

<Leslie> You mean a false negative? That the sensitivity of the XmR chart is limited? How can that be? I thought these charts will always signal a significant shift.

<Bob> It depends on the degree of shift and the amount of variation. The more variation there is the harder it is to detect a small shift.  In a conventional statistical test we would just use bigger samples, but that does not work with an XmR chart because the run tests are all fixed length. Pre-defined sample sizes.

<Leslie> So that means we can miss small but significant changes and come to the wrong conclusion that our change has had no effect! Isn’t that called a Type 2 error?

<Bob> Yes, it is. And we need to be aware of the limitations of the analysis tool we are using. So, now you know that how might you get around the problem?

<Leslie> One way would be to aggregate the data over a longer time period before plotting on the chart … we know that will reduce the sample variation.

<Bob> Yes. That would work … but what is the downside?

<Leslie> That we have to wait a lot longer to show a change, or not. We do not want that.

<Bob> I agree. So what we do is we use a chart that is much more sensitive to small shifts of the mean.  And that is called a cusum chart. These were not invented until 30 years after Shewhart first described his time-series chart.  To give you an example, do you recall that the work-in-progress chart is much more sensitive to changes in flow than either demand or activity charts?

<Leslie> Yes, and the WIP chart also reacts immediately if either demand or activity change. It is the one I always look at first.

<Bob> That is because a WIP chart is actually a cusum chart. It is the cumulative sum of the difference between demand and activity.

<Leslie> OK! That makes sense. So how do I create and use a cusum chart?

<Bob> I have just emailed you some instructions and a few examples. You can try with your unplanned admissions data. It should only take a few minutes. I will get a cup of tea and a chocolate Hobnob while I wait.

[Five minutes later]

<Leslie> Wow! That is just brilliant!  I can see clearly on the cusum chart when the shifts happened and when I split the XmR chart at those points the underlying changes become clear and measurable. The team did indeed achieve a 10% reduction in admissions just as they claimed they had.  And I checked with a statistical test which confirmed that it is statistically significant.

<Bob> Good work.  Cusum charts take a bit of getting used to and we have be careful about the metric we are plotting and a few other things but it is a useful trick to have up our sleeves for situations like this.

<Leslie> Thanks Bob. I will bear that in mind.  Now I just need to work out how to explain cusum charts to others! I do not want to be accused of using statistical smoke-and-mirrors! I think a golf metaphor may work with the GPs.

campfire_burning_150_wht_174[Beep Beep] Bob’s phone reminded him that it was time for the remote coaching session with Leslie, one of the CHIPs (community of healthcare improvement science practitioners). He flipped open his laptop and logged in. Leslie was already there.

<Leslie> Hi Bob.  I hope you had a good Xmas.

<Bob> Thank you Leslie. Yes, I did. I was about to ask the same question.

<Leslie> Not so good here I am afraid to say. The whole urgent care system is in meltdown. The hospital is gridlocked, the 4-hour target performance has crashed like the Stock Market on Black Wednesday, emergency admissions have spilled over into the Day Surgery Unit, hundreds of operations have been cancelled, waiting lists are spiralling upwards and the fragile 18-week performance ceiling has been smashed. It is chaos. Dangerous chaos.

<Bob> Oh dear. It sounds as if the butterfly has flapped its wings. Do you remember seeing this pattern of behaviour before?

<Leslie> Sadly yes. When I saw you demonstrate the Save the NHS Game.  This is exactly the chaos I created when I attempted to solve the 4-hour target problem, and the chaos I have seen every doctor, manager and executive create when they do too. We seem to be the root cause!

<Bob> Please do not be too hard on yourself Leslie. I am no different. I had to realise that I was contributing to the chaos I was complaining about, by complaining about it. Paradoxically not complaining about it made no difference. My error was one of omission. I was not learning. I was stuck in a self-justifying delusional blame-bubble of my own making. My humility and curiosity disabled by my disappointment, frustration and anxiety. My inner chimp was running the show!

<Leslie> Wow! That is just how everyone is feeling and behaving. Including me. So how did you escape from the blame-bubble?

<Bob> Well first of all I haven’t completely escaped. I just spend less time there. It is always possible to get sucked back in. The way out started to appear when I installed a “learning loop”.

<Leslie> A what? Is that  like a hearing loop for the partially deaf?

<Bob> Ha! Yes! A very apt metaphor.  Yes, just like that. Very good. I will borrow that if I may.

<Leslie> So what did your learning loop consist of?

<Bob> A journal.  I started a journal. I invested a few minutes each day reflecting and writing it down. The first entries were short and rather “ranty”. I cannot possibly share them in public. It is too embarrassing. But it was therapeutic and over time the anger subsided and a quieter, calmer inner voice could be heard. The voice of curiosity. It was asking one question over and over again. “How?” … not “Why?”.

<Leslie> Like “How did I get myself into this state?

<Bob> Exactly so.  And also “How come I cannot get myself out of this mess?

<Leslie> And what happened next?

<Bob> I started to take more notice of things that I had discounted before. Apparently insignificant things that I discovered had profound implications. Like the “butterflies wing” effect … I discovered that small changes can have big effects.  I also learned to tune in to specific feelings because they were my warning signals.

<Leslie> Niggles you mean?

<Bob> Yes. Niggles are flashes of negative emotion that signal a design flaw. They are usually followed by an untested assumption, an invalid conclusion, an unwise decision and a counter-productive action. It all happens unconsciously and very fast so we are only aware of the final action – the MR ANGRY reply to the email that we stupidly broadcast via the Reply All button!

<Leslie> So you learned to tune into the niggle to avoid the chain reaction that led to hitting the Red Button.

<Bob> Sort of. What actually happened is that the passion unleashed by the niggle got redirected into a more constructive channel – via my Curiosity Centre to power up the Improvement Engine. It was a bit rusty! It had not been used for a long while.

<Leslie> And once the “engine” was running it sucked in niggles that were now a source of fuel! You started harvesting them using the 4N Chart! So what was the output?

<Bob> Purposeful, focused, constructive, rational actions. Not random, destructive, emotional explosions.

<Leslie> Constructive actions such as?

<Bob> Well designing and building the FISH course is one, and this ISP programme is another.

<Leslie> More learning loops!

<Bob> Yup.

<Leslie> OK. So I can see that a private journal can help an individual to build their own learning loop. How does that work with groups? We do not all need to design and build a FISH-equivalent surely!

<Bob> No indeed. What we do is we share stories. We gather together in small groups around camp fires and we share what we are learning … as we are learning it. We contribute our perspective to the collective awareness … and we all gain from everyone’s learning. We learn and teach together.

<Leslie> So the stories are about what we are learning, not what we achieved with that learning.

<Bob> Well put! The “how” we achieved it is more valuable knowledge than “what” we achieved. The “how” is the process, the “what” is just the product. And the “how” we failed to achieve is even more valuable.

<Leslie> Wow! So are you saying that the chaos we are experiencing is the expected effect of not installing enough learning loops! A system-wide error of omission.

<Bob> I would say that is a reasonable diagnosis.

<Leslie> So a rational and reasonable course of treatment becomes clear.  I am on the case!